Frontières alpines/Alpine borders

Avec une topographie plus différenciée, les reliefs montagneux ont souvent des frontières marquées par des éléments naturels comme des lignes de cretes ou des cours d’eau. Les Alpes constituent un exemple marquant de ces frontières où les éléments naturels servent à séparer les Etats/ With a specifc topography, countries with mountainous chains  have often boundaries marked by natural features such as mountains or rivers. The Alps are a striking example of these boundaries where elements of landscape are used to separate states.

 

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Pont frontalier en bois entre Gailingen (Allemagne) et Diessenhofen (Suisse). Les deux pays sont séparés par le Rhin/ Border bridge in wood between Gailingen (Germany) and Diessenhofen (Switzerland). Both countries are separated by the Rhine.DSC07914

A l’intérieur du pont, la frontière se franchit à pied, à vélo ou en voiture/ Inside the bridge, the border can be crossed by foot, by bicycle or by car.

 

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Pont frontalier en bois entre le Liechtenstein et la Suisse sur le Rhin/ Border bridge in wood above the Rhine between Liechtenstein and Switzerland.

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A l’intérieur du pont, la frontière se franchit à pied ou à vélo/ Inside the bridge, the border can be crossed on foot or by bicycle.

 

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Un autre point de passage entre les deux pays/ Another crossing between the two countries.

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Le col du Brenner entre l’Autriche et l’Italie, devenu un grand centre commercial/ The Brenner Pass at the border between Austria and Italy, which has became a large shopping center.

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La limite entre les deux Etats/ The limit between the two states.

 

Somaliland: the country to invent

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Indication of a diplomatic representation of Somaliland in Addis Abeba (Ethiopia).

If Somalia is sometimes mentionned into the medias because of war and famine, Somaliland – a territory between Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia- remains unknown.

Here are some articles published lately about this “grey zone” not recongnized as an independent state, but not considered as a part of Somalia.

As for a chronology of this so-called country; see by The Atlantic (US): https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/12/timeline-somalia-1991-2008/307190/

See this article about Somaliland’s political status: http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2017/02/21/somaliland-stable-and-independent-state-no-recognition

See this article from The Economist: https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/11/economist-explains

Some articles about the current famine situation in some parts of the territory (like in South Sudan): https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/may/24/somaliland-hunger-crisis-world-doesnt-respond-until-children-are-dying-foreign-minister-saad-ali-shire

Ten years ago, the NYT did publish optimistic articles about the place: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/06/world/africa/06iht-somalia.4818753.html

 

Quitter l’Afrique par Ceuta ou Melilla/To leave Africa through Ceuta or Melilla

La pression migratoire exercée aux frontières de l’Union européenne est liée aux conflits au Moyen-Orient, mais surtout à la pauvreté et à l’oppression qui sévit dans une majorité de pays africains/ The migratory pressure on the borders of the European Union may be due to the conflicts in the Middle East, but the poverty and oppression that prevails in a majority of African countries also explains the current situation in Ceuta and Melilla.

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MELILLA (Espagne). Dans cette exclave espagnole au nord du Maroc, la frontière est matérialisée par des grillages d’une hauteur de 8 mètres et un no-man’s-land/ In this Spanish exclave in northern Morocco, the border is materialized by a 8-meters fence and a no-man’s-land.

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CEUTA (Espagne). Double rangée de barbelés sur le littoral à la frontière avec le Maroc/ Double row of barbed wire on the coastline at the border with Morocco.

Voir cet article du Monde du 1er janvier 2017 sur des incidents à la frontière:

http://abonnes.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2017/01/01/la-frontiere-maroc-espagne-a-ceuta-forcee-par-pres-d-un-millier-de-migrants_5056221_3214.html

Read also this article from Dan BILESKY published last Feb 17th in the New York Times:

Voir ou revoir ce reportage d’Envoyé Spécial diffusé en 2013:

 

Bosnia and Hercegovina:business, tourism and war.

Tourism has been back for several years in Bosnia and Hercegovina, mostly in Sarajevo and Mostar.

The two towns paid a very heavy cost in 1992 and 1995. They are still divided between the main city of Sarajevo and the ex-nihilo Serbian counterpart, Istocno Sarajevo. Mostar is also divided between Croats and Muslims.

Excursions offered from a travel agency in the center of Sarajevo include an “assassination tour” and a controversial picture of the entrance of the Memorial of Srebrenica with the number of people who were killed in July 1995 (8372 bodies discovered at the time of the erection of the monument) and the price from the agency (59 euros).

 

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Souvenirs representing war weapons or machines made with bullets in a shop in Mostar.

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A T-shirt for tourists in a souvenir shop where the bridge of Mostar (destroyed in November 1993 by the Croats) is targetted.

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